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All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. It would therefore be ideal to take repeated photos in order to certify that the patient is in the NHP. Reproducibility of natural head position in profile photographs of children aged 8 to 12 years with and without the aid of a cephalostat.

These structures were adjustable in the horizontal and vertical directions for the correct adaptation to the patient’s ears. Figure 1 illustrates the arrangement of the equipment used for the photography. The NHP was obtained following the method proposed by Solow and Tallgren 27 adapted to photographs with and without the aid of a cephalostat. This margin was found in most cases in the present study. How to cite this article. Moreover, the children reported discomfort caused by the ear rods.

The operator was limited to giving the instructions orally.

Pre-clinical Unit 3 – Course Unit – University of Coimbra

Soft tissue cephalometric analysis: Although positional variations have suggested that patients in this age group should receive additional orientation on NHP photographs, there were no significant differences in the NHP within a day interval with or without the aid of a cephalostat in the present study. Learning Outcomes Pediatric Dentistry I Acquiring, combining and interpreting theoretical fundamentals aiming specific clinical applications: Table 2 displays the absolute angular differences between T1 and T2 for the photos taken with and without the cephalostat.


Three-year reproducibility of natural head position: An adjustable device on the anterior portion of the structure parallel to floor contained a red cotton string 0. According to Reche et al, 23 the analysis of the facial profile using standardized photographs is valid and reliable for orthodontic documentation.

Peng L, Cooke MS. The present study found that the NHP is a method with good reproducibility, corroborating previous studies. However, clinicians should assess whether the photography was really carried out with the patient in the NHP prior to performing the facial analysis. Contemporary Orthodontics; 2 Viazis A. To know the essential theoretical basis of craniofacial growth, dentition development, etiology and diagnosis of occlusal and skeletal problems.

Orthod I Providing theoretical and practical foundations necessary to the orthodontic clin practice, enabling them, as future generalist dentists, to identify, diagnose and treat orthodontic problems using removable and functional appliances 1. The Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests demonstrated that the variables did not exhibit normal distribution.

Head posture and dentofacial proportions. Pre-clinical Unit 3 Year 3. There were no statistically significant differences between first and second measurements, as determined by the paired Student’s t-test. Siersbaek-Nielsen S, Solow B.

Am J Phys Anthropol. The NHP is a standardized, reproducible position, with the head in an upright posture and eyes focused on a point in the distance at eye level such that the visual axis is horizontal.

ds RESULTS Table 1 displays the results of the measurements made with and without the cephalostat and with a day interval between the photo sessions. Once the patient remained stable in the NHP, the ear rods were inserted with light skin contact.

A summary five factor cephalometric analysis based on natural head posture and the true horizontal. A natural head position in standing subjects. The relationship between estimated and registered natural head position.

Lin and Arild 15 found a large variation in the NHP of children between six and nine years of age assessed longitudinally.


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Back to study programme. Table 1 displays the results viazus the measurements made with and without the cephalostat and with a day interval between the photo sessions. There are two methods for obtaining the NHP. This lesser variation has been confirmed by a number of authors. The Kruskal-Wallis re was used to compare all groups. Thus, the NHP proved to be a method with good reproducibility in children.

The box was lined with aluminum foil on the sides, black TNT fabric on the posterior portion and a white TNT fabric on the anterior portion.

Pre-clinical Unit 3

While there were cases in which the NHP did not vary with the use of cephalostat Fig 3there were also cases in which the mean values were different between the two photo sessions initial and after 15 days Fig 4.

The cases in Figures 4B and 6B clearly show that the patients were in incorrect positions, requiring a dr supervised photograph record.

The mean value between these values was used for statistical purposes. Cooke and Wei 8 analyzed the use of the ear rods of the cephalostat and found no significant ortofoncia regarding the obtainment of the NHP.

Photographs were taken in the NHP using a digital camera viazid and without the aid of a cephalostat. This suggests that it would be better to position the line simulating the VL alongside rather than in front of the patient in order to avoid this possible nuisance when photographing children. January Revised and accepted: