Historia del Concilio de Trento, Volume 4, Issue 1. Front Cover. Hubert Jedin. Ediciones Universidad de Navarra – pages. Title, Historia del Concilio de Trento Volume 11 of Biblioteca de Teología. Author, Hubert Jedin. Publisher, Universidad de Navarra, Length, pages. Historia del Concilio de Trento: T.4, vol.1 (Biblioteca de teología) by Hubert Jedin at – ISBN – ISBN
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Council of Trent – Wikipedia
The Council of Trent Latin: Concilium Tridentinumheld between and in Trent or Trento, in northern Italywas the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
The Council issued condemnations of what it defined to be heresies committed by proponents of Protestantismand also issued key statements and clarifications of the Church’s doctrine and teachings, including scripturethe Biblical canonsacred traditionoriginal sinjustificationsalvationthe sacramentsthe Mass and the hitoria of saints.
The consequences of the Council were historiw significant in regards to the Church’s liturgy and practices.
During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the s. These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Masswhich remained the Church’s primary form of the Mass for the next four hundred years.
More than three hundred years yrento until the next ecumenical council, the First Vatican Councilwas convened in On 15 Marchthe Fifth Council of the Lateran closed its activities with a number of hlstoria proposals on the selection of cconcilio, taxation, censorship and preaching but not on the major problems that confronted the Church in Germany and other parts of Europe.
Luther’s position on ecumenical councils shifted over time,  but in he appealed to the Cncilio princes to oppose the papal Church, if necessary with a council in Germany,  open and free of the Papacy. After the Pope condemned in Exsurge Domine fifty-two of Luther’s theses as ejdinGerman opinion considered a council the best method to reconcile existing differences. German Catholics, diminished in number, hoped for a council to clarify matters.
It took a generation for the council to materialise, partly because of papal reluctance, given that a Lutheran demand was the exclusion of the papacy from the Council, and partly because of ongoing jeidn rivalries between France and Germany and the Jedih dangers in the Mediterranean.
Saint Peter’s Basilica and the Sistine Chapel were used for horses. Charles V strongly favoured a council, but needed the support of King Francis I of France, who attacked him militarily. Francis I generally opposed a general council histkria to partial support of the Protestant cause within France, and in he further complicated matters when suggesting a general council to include both Catholic and Protestant rulers of Europe that would devise a compromise between the two theological systems.
This proposal met the opposition of the Pope for it gave recognition to Protestants and also elevated the secular Princes of Europe above the clergy on church matters. Faced with a Turkish attack, Charles held the support of the Protestant German rulers, all of whom delayed the opening of the Council of Trent.
In German diets joined in the appeal, with Charles V seconding and pressing for a council as a means of reunifying the Church and settling the Reformation controversies. Pope Clement VII — was vehemently against the idea of a council, agreeing with Francis I of Franceafter Pope Pius IIin his bull Execrabilis and his reply to the University of Cologneset aside the theory of the supremacy of general councils laid down by the Council of Constance.
Pope Paul III —seeing that the Protestant Reformation was no longer confined to a few preachers, but had won over various princes, particularly in Germany, to its ideas, desired a council. Yet when he proposed the idea to his cardinalsit was almost unanimously opposed.
Nonetheless, he sent nuncios throughout Europe to propose the idea. The Smalcald Articles were designed to sharply define where the Lutherans could and could not compromise.
It failed to convene after another war broke out between France and Charles V, resulting in a non-attendance of French prelates.
Protestants refused to attend as well.
Financial difficulties in Mantua led the Pope in the autumn of to move the council to Trenttowhere participation was poor. The Council historria postponed indefinitely on 21 May Unity failed between Catholic and Protestant representatives “because of different concepts of Church and justification “. However, the council was delayed until and, as it happened, convened right before Luther’s death.
Unable, however, to resist the urging of Charles Conculio, the pope, after proposing Mantua dde the place of meeting, convened the council at Trent at that time ruled by a prince-bishop under the Holy Roman Empire on 13 December ; the Pope’s decision to transfer it to Bologna in March on the pretext of avoiding a plague  failed to take effect and the Council was indefinitely prorogued on 17 September None of the hisstoria popes reigning over the duration of the council ever attended, which had been a condition of Charles V.
Papal legates were appointed to represent the Papacy. It closed with a series of ritual acclamations honouring the reigning Pope, the Popes who had convoked the Council, the emperor and the kings who had supported it, the papal legates, the cardinals, the ambassadors present, and the bishops, followed by acclamations of acceptance of the faith of the Council and its decrees, and of anathema for all heretics.
The history of the council is thus divided into three distinct periods: During the second period, the Protestants present asked for renewed discussion on points already defined and for bishops to be released from their oaths of allegiance to the Pope.
When the last period began, all hope of conciliating the Protestants was gone and the Jesuits had become a strong force. The number of attending members in the three periods varied considerably. The decrees were signed in by members, the highest attendance of the whole council,  including four papal legates, two cardinals, three patriarchs, twenty-five archbishops, and bishops, two-thirds of whom were Italians.
The Italian and Spanish prelates were vastly preponderant in power and numbers. At the passage of hiwtoria most important decrees, not more than sixty prelates were present. The French monarchy boycotted the entire council until the last minute; a delegation led by Charles de Trenti, Cardinal of Lorraine finally arrived in November The first outbreak of the French Wars of Religion had been earlier in the year, kedin the Conciloo had experience of a significant and powerful Protestant minority, iconoclasm and tensions leading hisgoria violence in a way Italians and Spaniards did not.
The main objectives of the council were twofold, although there were other issues that were also discussed:. The doctrinal decisions of the council are divided into decrees decretawhich contain the positive statement of the conciliar dogmasand into short canons canoneswhich condemn the dissenting Protestant views with the concluding “anathema sit” “let him be anathema”.
The doctrinal acts are as follows: The Vulgate translation was affirmed to be authoritative for the text of Scripture. Justification sixth session was declared to be offered upon the basis of human cooperation with divine grace  as opposed to the Protestant doctrine of passive reception of grace.
Understanding the Protestant ” faith alone ” doctrine to be one of simple human confidence in divine mercy, the Council rejected the ” vain confidence ” of the Protestants, stating that no one can know who has received the grace of God. Furthermore, the Council affirmed—against Protestant doctrine—that the grace of God can be forfeited through mortal sin.
The greatest weight in the Council’s decrees is given to the sacraments. The seven sacraments were reaffirmed and the Eucharist pronounced to be a true propitiatory sacrifice as well as a sacrament, in which the bread and wine were consecrated into the Eucharist thirteenth and twenty-second sessions. The term transubstantiation was used by the Council, but the specific Aristotelian explanation given by Scholasticism was not cited as dogmatic. Instead, the decree states that Christ is “really, truly, substantially present” in the consecrated forms.
The sacrifice of the Mass was to be offered for dead and living alike and in giving to the apostles the command “do this in remembrance of me,” Christ conferred upon them a sacerdotal power.
The practice of withholding the cup from the laity was confirmed twenty-first session as one which the Church Fathers had commanded for good and sufficient reasons; yet in certain cases the Pope was made the supreme arbiter as to whether the rule should be strictly maintained. Ordination twenty-third session was defined to imprint an indelible character on the soul. The priesthood of the New Testament takes the place of the Levitical priesthood.
To the performance of its functions, the consent of the people is not necessary. In the decrees on marriage twenty-fourth session the excellence of the celibate state was reaffirmed, concubinage condemned and the validity of marriage made dependent upon the wedding taking place before a priest and two witnesses, although the lack of a requirement for parental trennto ended a debate that had proceeded from trrnto 12th century. In the case of a divorcethe right of the innocent party to marry again was denied so long as the other party was alive,  even if the other party had committed adultery.
However the council “refused … to assert the necessity or usefulness of clerical celibacy. In the twenty-fifth and last session,  the doctrines of purgatorythe df of saints and the veneration of relics were reaffirmed, as was also the efficacy of indulgences as dispensed by the Church according to the power given her, but with some cautionary recommendations,  and a ban on the sale of indulgences.
Short and rather inexplicit passages concerning religious images, were to have great impact on the development of Catholic Church art. Much more than the Second Council of Nicaea the Council fathers of Trent stressed the pedagogical purpose of Christian images. The council appointed, in eighteenth sessiona commission to prepare a list of forbidden books Index Librorum Prohibitorumbut it later left the matter to the Pope.
The preparation of a catechism and the revision of the Breviary and Missal were also left to the pope. On adjourning, the Council asked the supreme pontiff to ratify all its decrees and definitions. This petition was complied with by Pope Eel IVon 26 Januaryin the papal bullBenedictus Deuswhich enjoins strict obedience upon all Catholics and forbids, under pain of excommunicationall unauthorised interpretation, reserving cocnilio to the Pope alone and threatens the disobedient with “the indignation of Almighty God and of his blessed apostles, Peter and Paul.
The Index librorum prohibitorum was announced in and the following books were issued with the papal imprimatur: The decrees of the council were acknowledged in Italy, Portugal, Poland and by the Catholic princes of Germany at the Diet of Augsburg in Philip II of Spain accepted them for Spain, the Netherlands and Sicily inasmuch as they did not infringe the royal prerogative.
In France they were officially recognised by the king only in their doctrinal parts. The disciplinary sections received official recognition at provincial synods and were enforced by the bishops. No attempt was made to introduce it into England. Pius IV sent the decrees to Mary, Queen of Scotswith a letter dated 13 Junerequesting her to publish them in Scotland, but she dared not do it in the face of John Knox and the Reformation.
These decrees were later supplemented by the First Vatican Council of The History of the Council of Trent: The canons and decrees of the council have been published very often and in many languages for a large list consult British Museum Catalogueunder “Trent, Council of”. The first issue was by Paulus Manutius Rome, Other good editions are in vol. Collectio Lacensis 7 vols.
Diariorum, actorum, epistularum, … collectioed. Sebastianus Merkle 4 vols. Note also Carl MirbtQuellen2d ed, pp. The original acts and debates of the council, as prepared by its general secretary, Bishop Angelo Massarelliin six large folio volumes, are deposited in the Vatican Library and remained there unpublished for more than years and were brought to light, though only in part, by Augustin Theinerpriest of the oratory d.
Most of the official documents and private reports, however, which bear upon the council, were made known in the 16th century and since. The most complete collection of them is that of J. Le Plat, Monumentorum ad historicam Concilii Tridentini collectio 7 vols. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Council of Trent
December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Seventeen dogmatic decrees covering then-disputed aspects of Catholic religion. Cults Saints Relics Images.
A HistoryLiturgical Press, Henry Holt and Company, Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. London and New York: